Racketeering

TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

PART I - CRIMES

CHAPTER 96 - RACKETEER INFLUENCED AND CORRUPT ORGANIZATIONS (RICO)

Section 1961.

Definitions

As used in this chapter -

(1) "racketeering activity" means

(A) any act or threat involving murder, kidnapping, gambling, arson, robbery, bribery, extortion, dealing in obscene matter, or dealing in a controlled substance or listed chemical (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act), which is chargeable under State law and punishable by imprisonment for more than one year;

(B) any act which is indictable under any of the following provisions of title 18, United States Code: Section 201 (relating to bribery), section 224 (relating to sports bribery), sections 471, 472, and 473 (relating to counterfeiting), section 659 (relating to theft from interstate shipment) if the act indictable under section 659 is felonious, section 664 (relating to embezzlement from pension and welfare funds), sections 891-894 (relating to extortionate credit transactions), section 1028 (relating to fraud and related activity in connection with identification documents), section 1029 (relating to fraud and related activity in connection with access devices), section 1084 (relating to the transmission of gambling information), section 1341 (relating to mail fraud), section 1343 (relating to wire fraud), section 1344 (relating to financial institution fraud), section 1425 (relating to the procurement of citizenship or nationalization unlawfully), section 1426 (relating to the reproduction of naturalization or citizenship papers), section 1427 (relating to the sale of naturalization or citizenship papers), sections 1461-1465 (relating to obscene matter), section 1503 (relating to obstruction of justice), section 1510 (relating to obstruction of criminal investigations), section 1511 (relating to the obstruction of State or local law enforcement), section 1512 (relating to tampering with a witness, victim, or an informant), section 1513 (relating to retaliating against a witness, victim, or an informant), section 1542 (relating to false statement in application and use of passport), section 1543 (relating to forgery or false use of passport), section 1544 (relating to misuse of passport), section 1546 (relating to fraud and misuse of visas, permits, and other documents), sections 1581-1588 (relating to peonage and slavery), section 1951 (relating to interference with commerce, robbery, or extortion), section 1952 (relating to racketeering), section 1953 (relating to interstate transportation of wagering paraphernalia), section 1954 (relating to unlawful welfare fund payments), section 1955 (relating to the prohibition of illegal gambling businesses), section 1956 (relating to the laundering of monetary instruments), section 1957 (relating to engaging in monetary transactions in property derived from specified unlawful activity), section 1958 (relating to use of interstate commerce facilities in the commission of murder-for-hire), sections 2251, 2251A, 2252, and 2260 (relating to sexual exploitation of children), sections 2312 and 2313 (relating to interstate transportation of stolen motor vehicles), sections 2314 and 2315 (relating to interstate transportation of stolen property), section 2318 (relating to trafficking in counterfeit labels for phonorecords, computer programs or computer program documentation or packaging and copies of motion pictures or other audiovisual works), section 2319 (relating to criminal infringement of a copyright), section 2319A (relating to unauthorized fixation of and trafficking in sound recordings and music videos of live musical performances), section 2320 (relating to trafficking in goods or services bearing counterfeit marks), section 2321 (relating to trafficking in certain motor vehicles or motor vehicle parts), sections 2341-2346 (relating to trafficking in contraband cigarettes), sections 2421-24 (relating to white slave traffic),

(C) any act which is indictable under title 29, United States Code, section 186 (dealing with restrictions on payments and loans to labor organizations) or section 501(c) (relating to embezzlement from union funds),

(D) any offense involving fraud connected with a case under title 11(except a case under section 157 of this title), fraud in the sale of securities, or the felonious manufacture, importation, receiving, concealment, buying, selling, or otherwise dealing in a controlled substance or listed chemical (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act), punishable under any law of the United States,

(E) any act which is indictable under the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act, or

(F) any act which is indictable under the Immigration and Nationality Act, section 274 (relating to bringing in and harboring certain aliens), section 277 (relating to aiding or assisting certain aliens to enter the United States), or section 278 (relating to importation of alien for immoral purpose) if the act indictable under such section of such Act was committed for the purpose of financial gain.

(2) "State" means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, any territory or possession of the United States, any political subdivision, or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof;

(3) "person" includes any individual or entity capable of holding a legal or beneficial interest in property;

(4) "enterprise" includes any individual, partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity, and any union or group of individuals associated in fact although not a legal entity;

(5) "pattern of racketeering activity" requires at least two acts of racketeering activity, one of which occurred after the effective date of this chapter and the last of which occurred within ten years (excluding any period of imprisonment) after the commission of a prior act of racketeering activity;

(6) "unlawful debt" means a debt (A) incurred or contracted in gambling activity which was in violation of the law of the United States, a State or political subdivision thereof, or which is unenforceable under State or Federal law in whole or in part as to principal or interest because of the laws relating to usury, and (B) which was incurred in connection with the business of gambling in violation of the law of the United States, a State or political subdivision thereof, or the business of lending money or a thing of value at a rate usurious under State or Federal law, where the usurious rate is at least twice the enforceable rate;

(7) "racketeering investigator" means any attorney or investigator so designated by the Attorney General and charged with the duty of enforcing or carrying into effect this chapter;

(8) "racketeering investigation" means any inquiry conducted by any racketeering investigator for the purpose of ascertaining whether any person has been involved in any violation of this chapter or of any final order, judgment, or decree of any court of the United States, duly entered in any case or proceeding arising under this chapter;

(9) "documentary material" includes any book, paper, document, record, recording, or other material; and

(10) "Attorney General" includes the Attorney General of the United States, the Deputy Attorney General of the United States, the Associate Attorney General of the United States, any Assistant Attorney General of the United States, or any employee of the Department of Justice or any employee of any department or agency of the United States so designated by the Attorney General to carry out the powers conferred on the Attorney General by this chapter. Any department or agency so designated may use in investigations authorized by this chapter either the investigative provisions of this chapter or the investigative power of such department or agency otherwise conferred by law.

(Added Pub. L. 91-452, title IX, Sec. 901(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 941; amended Pub. L. 95-575, Sec. 3(c), Nov. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 2465; Pub. L. 95-598, title III, Sec. 314(g), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2677; Pub. L. 98-473, title II, Sec. 901(g), 1020, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2136, 2143; Pub. L. 98-547, title II, Sec. 205, Oct. 25, 1984, 98 Stat. 2770; Pub. L. 99-570, title I, Sec. 1365(b), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-35; Pub. L. 99-646, Sec. 50(a), Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3605; Pub. L. 100-690, title VII, Sec. 7013, 7020(c), 7032, 7054, 7514, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4395, 4396, 4398, 4402, 4489; Pub. L. 101-73, title IX, Sec. 968, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 506; Pub. L. 101-647, title XXXV, Sec. 3560, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4927; Pub. L. 103-322, title IX, Sec. 90104, title XVI, Sec. 160001(f), title XXXIII, Sec. 330021(1), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1987, 2037, 2150; Pub. L. 103-394, title III, Sec. 312(b), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4140; Pub. L. 104-132, title IV, Sec. 433, Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1274; Pub. L. 104-153, Sec. 3, July 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1386; Pub. L. 104-208, div. C, title II, Sec. 202, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-565; Pub. L. 104-294, title VI, Sec. 601(b)(3), (i)(3), 604(b)(6), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3499, 3501, 3506.)

REFERENCES IN TEXT

Section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act, referred to in par.(1)(A), (D), is classified to section 802 of Title 21, Food and Drugs. The Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act, referred to in par. (1)(E), is title II of Pub. L. 91-508, Oct. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 1118, which was repealed and reenacted as subchapter II of chapter 53 of Title 31, Money and Finance, by Pub. L. 97-258, Sec. 4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31. The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in par. (1)(F), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (Sec. 1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. Sections 274, 277, and 278 of the Act are classified to sections 1324, 1327, and 1328 of Title 8, respectively. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in par. (5), is Oct. 15, 1970.

AMENDMENTS

1996

Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 604(b)(6), amendeddirectory language of Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 160001(f). See 1994 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 601(i)(3), substituted "2260" for "2258".

Pub. L. 104-208 struck out "if the act indictable under section 1028 was committed for the purpose of financial gain" before ", section 1029", inserted "section 1425 (relating to the procurement of citizenship or nationalization unlawfully), section 1426 (relating to the reproduction of naturalization or citizenship papers), section 1427 (relating to the sale of naturalization or citizenship papers)," after "section 1344 (relating to financial institution fraud),", struck out "if the act indictable under section 1542 was committed for the purpose of financial gain" before ", section 1543", "if the act indictable under section 1543 was committed for the purpose of financial gain" before ", section 1544", "if the act indictable under section 1544 was committed for the purpose of financial gain" before ", section 1546", and "if the act indictable under section 1546 was committed for the purpose of financial gain" before ", sections 1581-1588".

Pub. L. 104-153 inserted ", section 2318 (relating to trafficking in counterfeit labels for phonorecords, computer programs or computer program documentation or packaging and copies of motion pictures or other audiovisual works), section 2319 (relating to criminal infringement of a copyright), section 2319A (relating to unauthorized fixation of and trafficking in sound recordings and music videos of live musical performances), section 2320 (relating to trafficking in goods or services bearing counterfeit marks)" after "sections 2314 and 2315 (relating to interstate transportation of stolen property)".

Pub. L. 104-132, Sec. 433(1), (2), inserted "section 1028 (relating to fraud and related activity in connection with identification documents) if the act indictable under section 1028 was committed for the purpose of financial gain," before "section 1029" and "section 1542 (relating to false statement in application and use of passport) if the act indictable under section 1542 was committed for the purpose of financial gain, section 1543 (relating to forgery or false use of passport) if the act indictable under section 1543 was committed for the purpose of financial gain, section 1544 (relating to misuse of passport) if the act indictable under section 1544 was committed for the purpose of financial gain, section 1546 (relating to fraud and misuse of visas, permits, and other documents) if the act indictable under section 1546 was committed for the purpose of financial gain, sections 1581-1588 (relating to peonage and slavery)," after "section 1513 (relating to retaliating against a witness, victim, or an informant),".

Par. (1)(D). Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 601(b)(3), substituted "section 157 of this title" for "section 157 of that title".

Par. (1)(F). Pub. L. 104-132, Sec. 433(3), (4), added subpar. (F).

1994

Par. (1)(A). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 330021(1), substituted "kidnapping" for "kidnaping".

Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 90104, substituted "a controlled substance or listed chemical (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act)" for "narcotic or other dangerous drugs".

Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 160001(f), as amended by Pub. L. 104-294, Sec. 604(b)(6), substituted "2251, 2251A, 2252, and 2258" for "2251-2252".

Par. (1)(D). Pub. L. 103-394 inserted "(except a case under section 157 of that title)" after "title 11".

Pub. L. 103-322, Sec. 90104, substituted "a controlled substance or listed chemical (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act)" for "narcotic or other dangerous drugs".

1990

Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 101-647 substituted "section 1029 (relating to" for "section 1029 (relative to" and struck out "sections 2251 through 2252 (relating to sexual exploitation of children)," before ", section 1958".

1989

Par. (1). Pub. L. 101-73 inserted "section 1344 (relating to financial institution fraud)," after "section 1343 (relating to wire fraud),".

1988

Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 7514, inserted "sections 2251 through 2252 (relating to sexual exploitation of children),".

Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 7054, inserted ", section 1029 (relative to fraud and related activity in connection with access devices)" and ", section 1958 (relating to use of interstate commerce facilities in the commission of murder-for-hire), sections 2251-2252 (relating to sexual exploitation of children)".

Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 7032, substituted "section 2321" for "section 2320".

Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 7013, made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 99-646. See 1986 Amendment note below.

Par. (10). Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 7020(c), inserted "the Associate Attorney General of the United States," after "Deputy Attorney General of the United States,".

1986

Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 99-646, as amended by Pub. L. 100-690, Sec. 7013, inserted "section 1512 (relating to tampering with a witness, victim, or an informant), section 1513 (relating to retaliating against a witness, victim, or an informant)," after "section 1511 (relating to the obstruction of State or local law enforcement),".

Pub. L. 99-570 inserted "section 1956 (relating to the laundering of monetary instruments), section 1957 (relating to engaging in monetary transactions in property derived from specified unlawful activity),".

1984

Par. (1)(A). Pub. L. 98-473, Sec. 1020(1), inserted "dealing in obscene matter," after "extortion,".

Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 98-547 inserted "sections 2312 and 2313 (relating to interstate transportation of stolen motor vehicles)," and "section 2320 (relating to trafficking in certain motor vehicles or motor vehicle parts),".

Pub. L. 98-473, Sec. 1020(2), inserted "sections 1461-1465 (relating to obscene matter),".

Par. (1)(E). Pub. L. 98-473, Sec. 901(g), inserted cl. (E).

1978

Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 95-575 inserted "sections 2341-2346 (relating to trafficking in contraband cigarettes),".

Par. (1)(D). Pub. L. 95-598 substituted "fraud connected with a case under title 11" for "bankruptcy fraud".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT

Amendment by section 604(b)(6) of Pub. L. 104-294 effective Sept. 13, 1994, see section 604(d) of Pub. L. 104-294, set out as a note under section 13 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11, Bankruptcy, before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 11.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1978 AMENDMENTS

Amendment by Pub. L. 95-598 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 95-598, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy. Amendment by Pub. L. 95-575 effective Nov. 2, 1978, see section 4 of Pub. L. 95-575, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2341 of this title.

SHORT TITLE OF 1984 AMENDMENT

Section 301 of chapter III (Sec. 301-322) of title II of Pub. L. 98-473 provided that: "This title (probably means this chapter, enacting sections 1589, 1600, 1613a, and 1616 of Title 19, Customs Duties and sections 853, 854, and 970 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, amending section 1963 of this title and sections 1602, 1605, 1606, 1607, 1608, 1609, 1610, 1611, 1612, 1613, 1614, 1615, 1618, 1619, and 1644 of Title 19, sections 824, 848, and 881 of Title 21, and section 524 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and repealing section 7607 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code) may be cited as the 'Comprehensive Forfeiture Act of 1984'."

SHORT TITLE

Section 1 of Pub. L. 91-452 provided in part: "That this Act (enacting this section, sections 841 to 848, 1511, 1623, 1955, 1962 to 1968, 3331 to 3334, 3503, 3504, 3575 to 3578, and 6001 to 6005 of this title, and section 1826 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, amending sections 835, 1073, 1505, 1954, 2424, 2516, 2517, 3148, 3486, and 3500 of this title, sections 15, 87f, 135c, 499m, and 2115 of Title 7, Agriculture, section 25 of Title 11, Bankruptcy, section 1820 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, sections 49, 77v, 78u, 79r, 80a-41, 80b-9, 155, 717m, 1271, and 1714 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 825f of Title 16, Conservation, section 1333 of Title 19, Customs Duties, section 373 of Title 21, Food and Drugs, section 161 of Title 29, Labor, section 506 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, sections405 and 2201 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, sections 157 and 362 of Title 45, Railroads, section 1124 of former Title 46, Shipping, section 409 of Title 47, Telegraphs, Telephones, and Radio telegraphs, sections 9, 43, 46, 916, 1017, and 1484 of former Title 49, Transportation, section 792 of Title 50, War and National Defense, and sections 643a, 1152, 2026, and former section 2155 of Title 50, Appendix, repealing sections 837, 895, 1406, and 2514 of this title, sections 32 and 33 of Title 15; sections 4874 and 7493 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, section 827 of former Title 46, sections 47 and 48 of former Title 49, and sections 121 to 144 of Title 50, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 841, 1511, 1955, preceding 3331, preceding 3481, 3504, and 6001 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 2510 of this title) may be cited as the 'Organized Crime Control Act of 1970'."